Monday, August 21, 2006

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer
By Steve Valentino

Breast Cancer is a cancer that affects the breast tissue. The primary victims of this type of cancer are females. Statistics show that approximately one out of 11 to 12 women of the Western world are affected by Breast Cancer. Medical researches have tried aggressively to find a solution to detect the problem earlier or to treat the problem. About 20 percent of the women affected by breast cancer still fall prey to it and eventually die. In fact, breast cancer ranks second in cancer deaths for women.

Most breast cancer starts in the cells that line up the ducts. There are occasions where the cancer cells originate from the lobules, and then spread to other tissues.
Many breast cancer diagnosis starts in the checking of lumps I the breast. Although most cases of lumps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous, but doctors often ask a patient to undergo biopsy to make sure that cells are not malignant. Most of the lumps are caused by cysts. These lumps may cause pain and swelling of the breast accompanied at times by clear or cloudy discharge in the nipple which happens before the menstrual cycle period is about to begin in a woman. The symptoms may lead to the person to seek a medical check-up.
Male Victims
Breast cancer is not limited to women though; male victims are present as well. The breast of both male and female have identical tissues, so a man is also prone to acquiring the cancer. It is believed that females are more prone to men because the breast of a woman constantly goes through growth changing hormones, thus the cells are more exposed to cancerous change.

Breast Cancer Awareness
As more and more people fall ill to breast cancer, the month of October has been deemed as breast cancer month, to commemorate those who passed away from the cancer, the family and friends survived by the deceased. A pink ribbon is the symbol that a person is joining in the commemoration.

Breast Cancer provides detailed information on Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Treatments, Breast Cancer Symptoms, Cause Of Breast Cancer and more. Breast Cancer is affiliated with Hodgkins Lymphoma.
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Nodular Melanoma

Nodular Melanoma
By Max Bellamy

The awareness of the dangers of skin cancer, particularly melanoma, has doubtless increased. Still, the most fatal form of melanoma is frequently left undiagnosed in the fledging stages.
Nodular melanoma is the most serious and life threatening form of skin cancer, constituting around 35% of all thick melanoma cases. In comparison, the most general form of melanoma, the superficial spreading melanoma, is regularly diagnosed in its infancy and characteristically is a thin melanoma.

The dissimilarity between thick and thin melanomas is quite straightforward. Thin melanomas have a tendency to spread out over the top of the skin surface. Thick melanomas, on the other hand, are more penetrating and grow deeper into the skin.
Commonly, nodular melanoma is already invasive upon first diagnosis. This form of cancer is normally seen on arms, legs and upper torso of an elderly person. The scalp may be affected at any age.

This malignancy is characterized by a bump-like feature, generally black, but at times blue, white, gray, brown, red, tan or skin tone.
Nodular melanoma is far less common than any of the other sub-types. It accounts for only 15% of all melanoma cases. Reports suggest that this disease commonly affects people after the age of fifty. Medically, nodular melanoma appears as a consistent blue-red, blue-black or amelanotic nodule.

Nearly 5% of nodular melanomas do not have pigment. They are called amelanotic melanoma. The most affected areas for nodular melanoma are the head, neck and upper torso. It is important to remember that a nodular melanoma usually starts in normal skin, and not in an already existing lesion. Nodular melanomas are also characterized by rapid growth.
Melanoma provides detailed information on Melanoma, Malignant Melanoma, Melanoma Cancer, Nodular Melanoma and more. Melanoma is affiliated with Ozone Generator.
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Wednesday, August 09, 2006

Foot Care: Ten Tips For Diabetics

Foot Care: Ten Tips For Diabetics
By Christine Dobrowolski, DPM

It is estimated that over 18 million Americans have diabetes.The majority of diabetics are between the age of 20 to 60 and are affected by type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin, but it does not produce enough of this hormone or the cells don't respond appropriately to it. The result is an elevated blood sugar. The blood sugar is high because the sugar is not being taken into the cells and utilized for energy properly.
The elevated blood sugar causes many problems for the body. Serious complications associated with diabetes include stroke, heart disease, blindness, kidney disease, high blood pressure, nervous system diseases and amputations. In 2002 there were 82,000 lower extremity amputations in individuals with diabetes. Six out of every 1,000 people with diabetes will have a lower extremity amputation. This is a scary thought for most diabetics.

A slow healing or non healing open sore (known as an ulceration) on the foot is the most common reason diabetics will end up with a foot or leg amputation. Over 2 million diabetics have ulcerations and one in four diabetics with an ulcer will have an amputation. Unfortunately, over 25% of diabetics have not heard of an ulcer.
Treating diabetic ulcers is difficult. Preventing diabetic ulcers is not. Preventing diabetic ulcerations is the key in decreasing the risk of amputation. Most individuals have some sort of trauma or injury that predisposes them to development of an open sore (or ulcer), a blister or an ingrown nail. The trauma may be something as simple as the shoe rubbing on the side of the foot. In individuals with poor circulation, it becomes difficult to heal even the most minor sores on the foot. When the body does not send enough blood to the feet to heal the sore, gangrene will set in. It is important to see a podiatrist for diabetic checkups every two months to help keep ingrown nails, corns and callouses from becoming a problem.

Take these steps to help prevent diabetic foot complications:

1. Check your feet everyday! If needed, put a mirror on the floor and put your foot over it to look for cuts, scraps, bruises, openings or areas of irritation. Make sure you check between your toes. Very moist areas, white areas or red areas are bad. Check for foot fungus, patchy, scaly white areas between your toes or on the bottom of the feet. Check for irritated areas with redness or swelling. Check for infection. Redness, pus and drainage are signs of infection. Look for ingrown nails.

2. Don’t walk around barefoot or in sandals. Splinters and needles can be hidden in the carpet and can puncture a foot without sensation. Punctures can go unnoticed. Unprotected feet can be more damaged when bumped or hit against furniture. I once had a patient come in with a tack in the bottom of her foot. She routinely walked around the house barefoot or in socks. She had no idea there was a tack in the bottom of her foot until I pointed it out to her!

3. Check your shoes before you put your feet in them. Put your hand in first and check it before you place your foot into the shoe. Small pebbles or rocks can hide in the shoe. Items that I have found in patient’s shoes include socks, stockings, staples, rocks, legos and even a pencil. The most common response when I pull these items out of their shoe is “How did that get in there?” Also watch out for folds in your socks. Small folds can lead to ulceration and infections.

4. Dry off your feet after showers and dry between your toes. Increased moisture between your toes can lead to the skin breaking down. This will eventually lead to an ulcer between the toes. Ulcers between the toes are very difficult to cure.

5. Don’t be a victim of fashion. High fashion shoes usually lead to a high number of problems in the feet. Make sure the shoes are wide enough. Don’t buy shoes that are too wide or too long which can cause a lot of slipping. Pick shoes that are soft and flexible and allow for cushioning on the top and sides, but are rigid on the sole. Make sure they don’t fold in half. You may be eligible for your insurance to pay for diabetic extra-depth shoes with custom insoles. These shoes will take the pressure off your feet. Ask your doctor.

6. Check your bath water with your hand before you put your foot in it. The temperature your foot feels is much different from the temperature your hand feels when you have neuropathy. Make sure to check the temperature with your wrist. This will be much more accurate than testing the water with your foot.

7. Do not use medicated corn pads or any medicated pads from the local drug store. These medicated pads are usually not effective and may cause a chemical burn on the surrounding skin. Don’t use any medication on the skin unless you are instructed to do so by your physician.

8. STOP SMOKING! This applies to everyone, but especially to diabetics. Smoking causes the blood vessels to shrink. Smoking contributes to clogging of the arteries. Smoking also makes it more difficult for the nutrients in the blood to get to the areas they are needed. Diabetes + Smoking = Disaster.

9. Don’t cut your own toenails or callouses. This is something a podiatrist or your family doctor should be doing for you.

10. Visit a podiatrist regularly. If you have a loss of sensation or circulation in your feet or legs, you should be seen by a podiatrist every two months.

Christine Dobrowolski is a podiatrist and the author of Those Aching Feet: Your Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Foot Problems. To learn more about Dr. Dobrowolski and her book, visit Ski Publishing

Malignant Hypertension Symptoms Treatment

Malignant Hypertension Symptoms Treatment
By Armughan Riaz

Malignant Hypertension and accelerated high blood pressure are two emergency conditions which should be treated promptly. Both conditions have same outcome and therapy. However Malignant hypertension is a complication of high blood pressure characterized by very elevated high blood pressure, and organ damage in the eyes, brain, lung and/or kidneys. It differs from other complications of hypertension in that it is accompanied by papilledema. (Edema of optic disc of eye) Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are usually greater than 240 and 120, respectively. While Accelerated high blood pressure is condition with high blood pressure, target organ damage, on fundoscopy we have flame shaped hemorrhages, or soft exudates, but without papilledema.

There are two things. Hypertensive Urgency and Hypertensive emergency. In hypertensive urgency we don’t see any target organ damage while in emergency we see target organ damage along with high blood pressure greater than systolic >220. Now depending upon target organ damage you will decide whether you have hypertensive emergency or urgency. It is essential to bring down high blood pressure in hypertensive emergency immediately, while in urgency, bring down blood pressure very rapidly is not required.

Pathogenesis of malignant hypertension is fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles and small arteries. Red blood cells are damaged as they flow through vessels obstructed by fibrin deposition, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Another pathologic process is the dilatation of cerebral arteries resulting in increased blood flow to brain which leads to clinical manifestations of hypertensive encephalopathy. Common age is above 40 years and it is more frequent in man rather than women. Black people are at higher risk of developing hypertensive emergencies than the general population.

Target organs are mainly Kidney, CNS and Heart. So symptoms of Malignant hypertension are oligurea, Headache, vomiting, nausea, chest pain, breathlessness, paralysis, blurred vision. Most commonly heart and CNS are involved in malignant hypertension. The pathogenesis is not fully understood. Up to 1% of patients with essential hypertension develop malignant hypertension, and the reason some patients develop malignant hypertension while others do not is unknown. Other causes include any form of secondary hypertension; use of cocaine, MAOIs, or oral contraceptives; , beta-blockers, or alpha-stimulants. Renal artery stenosis, withdrawal of alcohol, pheochromocytoma {most pheochromocytomas can be localized using CT scan of the adrenals}, aortic coarctation, complications of pregnancy and hyperaldosteronism are secondary causes of hypertension. Main Investigations to access target organ damage are complete renal profile, BSR, Chest Xray, ECG, Echocardiography, CBC, Thyroid function tests.
Patient is admitted in Intensive Care Unit. An intravenous line is taken for fluids and medications. The initial goal of therapy is to reduce the mean arterial pressure by approximately 25% over the first 24-48 hours. However Hypertensive urgencies do not mandate admission to a hospital. The goal of therapy is to reduce blood pressure within 24 hours, which can be achieved as an outpatient department. Initially, patients treated for malignant hypertension are instructed to fast until stable. Once stable, all patients with malignant hypertension should take low salt diet, and should focus on weight lowering diet. Activity is limited to bed rest until the patient is stable. Patients should be able to resume normal activity as outpatients once their blood pressure has been controlled.

Hospitalization is essential until the severe high blood pressure is under control. Medications delivered through an IV line, such as nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, or others, may reduce your blood pressure. An alternative for patients with renal insufficiency is IV fenoldopam. Beta-blockade can be accomplished intravenously with esmolol or metoprolol. Labetalol is another common alternative, providing easy transition from IV to oral (PO) dosing. Also available parenterally are enalapril, diltiazem, verapamil, Hydralazine is reserved for use in pregnant patients as it also increases uterine profusion, while phentolamine is the drug of choice for a pheochromocytoma crisis. After the severe high blood pressure is brought under control, regular anti-hypertensive medications taken by mouth can control your blood pressure. The medication may need to be adjusted occasionally.

Remember, It is very necessary to control malignant hypertension, otherwise it can lead to life threatening conditions like Heart Failure, Infarction, Kidney failure and even blindness.
Dr Armughan, Author of this article. Read More about Malignant Hypertension
Dr. Armughan, Read more about High Blood Pressure Symptoms Causes Diet TreatmentBlackhead remover by Venusworldwide
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